(IOM) Migrants and Their Vulnerability to Human Trafficking, Modern Slavery and Forced Labour
A new study, undertaken by Minderoo Foundation’s Walk Free initiative and IOM, examines the connection between migration and modern slavery, and focuses on which migrants are most vulnerable, and in what circumstances, to modern slavery. The report explores various sites of vulnerability where migrants are particularly susceptible to human trafficking, forced labour and modern slavery. The report illustrates that migrants are most vulnerable to exploitation in situations where the authority of the State and society are unable to protect them. It also analyses the characteristics of victims that are thought to contribute to their vulnerability. In addition, the study explains some characteristics of offenders, including worldviews that allow them to rationalize the exploitation of others. Lastly, the study looks at examples of enabling environments or contexts, such as restrictive immigration policies, that engender or exacerbate vulnerability.
Conventry University, CSOP, IOM, Issara Institute (2019): Fish for Export: Working in the Wild Capture Fishing Industry in Indonesia
Indonesia is one of the most important seafood producers in the world.Since 2014, the Indonesian government have embarked on a far-reaching and internationally hailed programme to professionalise the industry. Business and human rights are the burning issues which arising in line with the increasing social awareness on the private sector’s responsibilities to ensure the enforcement of human rights in their business supply chain. It is important to create a business free of unethical and manipulative recruitment, exploitative working conditions, and other type of modern slavery similar to trafficking in person.
The research explored the employment conditions of ﬁshers and factory workers processing wild catch for export. Specifically, the research explored three areas, first: employment and recruitment conditions of fishers and factory workers engaged in the wild catch industry. Second: sourcing of wild catch seafood by UK and US buyers and retailers, and third: International initiatives aimed at improving labour conditions in seafood. The research provides recommendation for the Indonesian government on two areas: implementation and enforcement of legal framework, and access of workers to trade unions and other forms of workers organizations.
IOM (2019): Debt and the Migration Experience: Insights from South-East Asia
Debt and the Migration Experience focuses attention on the role of debt in the migration process. It explores how debt influences migration decision-making, its role in facilitating migration, the lived experiences of indebtedness among migrant workers, and, finally, how debt shapes return decision-making and experiences. It also aims to expand the understanding of how debt and financial insecurity shape the potential for sustainable return in the region. In this process, it is critical to understand how debt is taken and used across the migration experience. Indebtedness and other forms of financial insecurity that return migrants experience are often related to the specific circumstances of their migration and any debt associated with it. Through a better understanding of the relationship between migration and debt, the study aims to offer feasible recommendations on how to alleviate the burden of debt experienced by migrant workers and returnees in the region, and to suggest avenues for future research.
IOM (2019): CREST Theory of Change: Working Together to End Migrant Worker Exploitation
CREST Theory of change examines the root causes of exploitation, forced labour, and vulnerabilities among migrant workers, identifying activities towards addressing them. It proposes that action towards tackling human and labour rights challenges faced by migrant workers in international supply chains must result from a combined effort between various stakeholders. These include brands, suppliers, recruitment agencies, civil society, governments and academia.
ISEAL (2017): The business benefits of using sustainability standards
Reviews business benefits that credible sustainability standards can deliver to various business entities along the length of the supply chain. The scope of the research extends to four sectors (agriculture, forestry, fishery and mining) and covers the business benefits for upstream and downstream business.
Verité (2012): An Ethical Framework for International Labour Recruitment
Reviews the risks to both workers and business that exist in the current cross-border recruitment marketplace, and identifies the potential benefits that could incentivize stakeholders engagement to find solutions with an Ethical Framework for Cross-Border Labour Recruitment in two parts: a set of Standards for Ethical Practice, and an outline of a Verification and Certification System.
ILO (2015): Regulating labour recruitment to prevent human trafficking and to foster fair migration
Provides an understanding of international labour standards and their application with regards to labour recruitment, including regulatory models and approaches aimed at preventing human trafficking and the exploitation of workers in the recruitment process; and models of enforcement to ensure compliance with national law and international standards. Special emphasis is put on the protection of migrant workers in the context of cross-border recruitment and placement.
IOM (2015): Recruitment Monitoring & Migrant Welfare Assistance: What Works?
Examines existing recruitment monitoring mechanisms and compiles good practices from the Colombo Process (CP) countries and key destinations. The report also reviews current provisions for migrant welfare assistance for CP nationals in origin, transit and destination countries.
UNODC (2015): Linkages between recruitment and trafficking in persons
Examines the relationship between recruitment fees and other abusive and fraudulent practices of recruitment agencies and trafficking in persons, with a particular focus on criminal justice measures.
Bangladesh Annual Migration Report 2017
The Bangladesh Annual Migration Report 2017 reflects on the country’s progress and challenges in 2017 across a range of labour migration issues. This publication was produced by IOM Bangladesh with the financial support of the European Union. Its development involved a participatory process overseen by the Ministry of Expatriates’ Welfare and Overseas Employment (MoEWOE) of the Government of Bangladesh, through a supervisory committee of senior officials, and involving key stakeholders. The report is divided into five chapters on migration policy and governance, trends in labour migration from Bangladesh, analyses of destination labour markets, migration of women and labour migration. It concentrates on recruitment practices in Bangladesh and on occupations, training and safeguards available for Bangladeshi women labour migrants, noting that while MoEWOE is the focal ministry for labour migration, other government institutions have important roles as well.